Four different types of membrane destabilization mechanisms: pore formation, blebbing, budding, and vesicularization. All four of these mechanisms require negative Gaussian curvature in the target membrane (also known as ‘saddle-splay’ deformations, the type of curvature found on the inside of a donut hole, which is covered with curved patches shaped like Pringles potato chips). This requirement places constraints on the amino acid content of AMPs, which controls the proportion of lysines, arginines, and hydrophobic residues.